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Carnosine and Diabetic Nephropathy

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Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) is a major complication in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and represents the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Novel therapeutic approaches are warranted. In view of a polymorphism in the carnosinase 1 gene CNDP1, resulting in reduced carnosine degradation activity and a significant DN risk reduction, carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) has gained attention as a potential therapeutic target. Carnosine has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-glycation and reactive carbonyl quenching properties. In diabetic rodents, carnosine supplementation consistently improved renal histology and function and in most studies, also glucose metabolism. Even though plasma half-life of carnosine in humans is short, first intervention studies in (pre-) diabetic patients yielded promising results. The precise molecular mechanisms of carnosine mediated protective action, however, are still incompletely understood. This review highlights the recent knowledge on the role of the carnosine metabolism in DN.
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Keywords: CNDP1 gene; Carnosine; diabetic nephropathy; end-stage renal disease; histidine-containing dipeptides; polymorphism

Document Type: Review Article

Publication date: April 1, 2020

This article was made available online on June 14, 2019 as a Fast Track article with title: "Carnosine and Diabetic Nephropathy".

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  • Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.
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