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Melatonin and Oxidative Stress in the Diabetic State: Clinical Implications and Potential Therapeutic Applications

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All living organisms exhibit circadian rhythms, which govern the majority of biological functions, including metabolic processes. Misalignment of these circadian rhythms increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. Thus, disruption of the circadian system has been proven to affect the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this context, the pineal indoleamine melatonin is a signaling molecule able to entrain circadian rhythms. There is mounting evidence that suggests a link between disturbances in melatonin production and impaired insulin, glucose, lipid metabolism, and antioxidant capacity. Besides, several genetic association studies have causally associated various single nucleotide polymorphysms (SNPs) of the human MT2 receptor with increased risk of developing T2DM. Taken together, these data suggest that endogenous as well as exogenous melatonin may influence diabetes and associated metabolic disturbances not only by regulating insulin secretion but also by providing protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS) since pancreatic β-cells are very susceptible to oxidative stress due to their low antioxidant capacity.
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Keywords: Melatonin; circadian rhythm; insulin; melatonin receptor; oxidative stress; type 1 and type 2 diabetes; β- cell

Document Type: Review Article

Publication date: July 1, 2019

This article was made available online on May 30, 2018 as a Fast Track article with title: "Melatonin and Oxidative Stress in the Diabetic State: Clinical Implications and Potential Therapeutic Applications".

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  • Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.
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