Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

Cross-Talk Between NO and Arachidonic Acid in Inflammation

Buy Article:

$68.00 + tax (Refund Policy)

Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed in a variety of cell types, in particular in inflammatory cells, in response to diverse pro-inflammatory stimuli. This process requires critical levels of arachidonic acid (AA), generated by constitutive phospholipase A2 (PLA2), promoting tyrosine kinase-dependent phosphorylation, and inhibition, of constitutive NOS. Lowering basal NO levels is indeed critical for the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and thus for the expression of genes (e.g. iNOS) regulated by this trascription factor. It is interesting to note that NO and AA, two small lipid soluble molecules, rapidly cross the plasma membrane thereby allowing the triggering of the above responses in distal cells. That is, constitutive NO might inhibit NF-κB activity in the same cells (e.g. astrocytes) in which it is generated, as well as in other cells that do not express constitutive NOS (e.g. microglia). NO from cells unable to respond to pro-inflammatory stimuli (e.g. neurons) will also contribute to these effects. Along the same line, AA released by pro-inflammatory molecules in specific cell types (e.g. astrocytes) might suppress constitutive NOS activity in the same cells as well as in other cells (e.g. neurons). Thus, AA produced at the very early stages of the inflammatory response is a likely critical signal switching the regulation of the “NO tone” from physiological (i.e. mediated by constitutive NOS) to pathological (i.e. mediated by iNOS). This second phase of the inflammatory response is often accompanied by the onset of deleterious effects in the tissue in which a critical role is played by iNOS-derived NO (directly or indirectly, i.e. via formation of peroxynitrite) as well as by products of the AA cascade. In summary, we suggest that the relative amounts of NO and AA, released by their constitutive enzymes, produce autocrine and paracrine effects regulating the onset of an inflammatory response in which, in addition to other factors, NO and AA are extensively released by their inducible enzymes.
No References
No Citations
No Supplementary Data
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: Ca2+ dependent enzymes; anti-inflammatory; interferon; phosphorylation; pro-inflammatory stimuli

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Morphologic and Biomedical Sciences, University of Verona, Italy, Strada Le Grazie, 8, 37134 Verona, Italy.

Publication date: August 1, 2007

More about this publication?
  • Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.
  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more