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Free Content Conceptual Model of Medication Adherence in Older Adults with High Blood Pressure-An Integrative Review of the Literature

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Background: Medication adherence (MA) is the most important controlling factor of high blood pressure (HBP). There are a few MA models, but they have not been successful in predicting MA completely. Thus, this study aimed to expand a conceptual model of MA based on an ecological approach.

Methods: An integrative review of the literature based on theoretical and empirical studies was completed. Data source comprised: Medline (including PubMed and Ovid), ISI, Embase, Google scholar, and internal databases such as Magiran, Google, SID, and internal magazines. Primary English and Persian language studies were collected from 1940 to 2018. The steps of study included: (a) problem identification, (b) literature review and extracting studies, (c) appraising study quality, (d) gathering data, (e) data analysis using the directed content analysis, (f) concluding.

Results: Thirty-six articles were finally included and analyzed. After analysis, predictors of MA in older adults with hypertension were categorized into personal, interpersonal, organizational, and social factors. Although the personal factors have the most predictors in sub-categories of behavioral, biological, psychological, knowledge, disease, and medication agents, social, organizational and interpersonal factors can have indirect and important effects on elderly MA.

Conclusion: There are many factors influencing MA of elderly with HBP. The personal factor has the most predictors. The designed model of MA because of covering all predictor factors, can be considered as a comprehensive MA model. It is suggested that future studies should select factors for study from all levels of the model.
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Keywords: Conceptual model; blood pressure; ecological approach; elderly; hypertension; medication adherence

Document Type: Review Article

Publication date: August 1, 2019

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  • Current Hypertension Reviews publishes frontier reviews on all the latest advances on hypertension and its related areas e.g. nephrology, clinical care, and therapy. The journal's aim is to publish the highest quality review articles dedicated to clinical research in the field. The journal is essential reading for all clinicians and researchers in the field of hypertension.
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