Biochemical and Therapeutic Effects of Antioxidants in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Aging is a major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). An unbalanced overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may give rise to oxidative stress which can induce neuronal damage, ultimately leading to neuronal death by apoptosis or necrosis. A large body of evidence indicates that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of AD, PD, and ALS. Several studies have shown that nutritional antioxidants (especially vitamin E and polyphenols) can block neuronal death in vitro, and may have therapeutic properties in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases including AD, PD, and ALS. Morever, clinical data suggest that nutritional antioxidants might exert some protective effect against AD, PD, and ALS. In this paper, the biochemical mechanisms by which nutritional antioxidants can reduce or block neuronal death occurring in neurodegenerative disorders are reviewed. Particular emphasis will be given to the role played by the nuclear transcription factor -kB (NF-kB) in apoptosis, and in the pathogenesis of neurodegenenerative disorders, such as AD, PD, and ALS. The effects of ROS and antioxidants on NF-kB function and their relevance in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases will also be examined.
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Document Type: Review Article
Publication date: April 1, 2003
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- CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments on the medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology, genomics and biochemistry of contemporary molecular targets involved in neurological and central nervous system (CNS) disorders e.g. disease specific proteins, receptors, enzymes, genes. Each issue of the journal will contain a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of current topics on drug targets involved in neurological and CNS disorders. As the discovery, identification, characterization and validation of novel human drug targets for neurological and CNS drug discovery continues to grow; this journal will be essential reading for all pharmaceutical scientists involved in drug discovery and development.