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Magnetic Nanoparticles: Current Trends and Future Aspects in Diagnostics and Nanomedicine

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Background: Biomedical applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNPs) are creating a major impact on disease diagnosis and nanomedicine or a combined platform called theranostics. A significant progress has been made to engineer novel and hybrid MNPs for their multifunctional modalities such as imaging, biosensors, chemotherapeutic or photothermal and antimicrobial agents. MNPs are successfully applied in biomedical applications due to their unique and tunable properties such as superparamagnetism, stability, and biocompatibility. Approval of ferumoxytol (feraheme) for MRI and the fact that several Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) are currently undergoing clinical trials have paved a path for future MNPs formulations. Intensive research is being carried out in designing and developing novel nanohybrids for multiple applications in nanomedicine.

Objectives: The objective of the present review is to summarize recent developments of MNPs in imaging modalities like MRI, CT, PET and PA, biosensors and nanomedicine including their role in targeting and drug delivery. Relevant theory and examples of the use of MNPs in these applications have been cited and discussed to create a thorough understanding of the developments in this field.

Conclusion: MNPs have found widespread use as contrast agents in imaging modalities, as tools for bio-sensing, and as therapeutic and theranostics agents. Multiple formulations of MNPs are in clinical testing and may be accepted in clinical settings in near future.
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Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging; SPIONs; biosensors; computer tomography; iron oxide nanoparticles; nanozymes; photoacoustic tomography; positron emission tomography

Document Type: Review Article

Publication date: May 1, 2019

This article was made available online on November 30, 2018 as a Fast Track article with title: "Magnetic Nanoparticles: Current Trends and Future Aspects in Diagnostics and Nanomedicine".

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  • Current Drug Metabolism aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in drug metabolism and disposition. The journal serves as an international forum for the publication of timely reviews in drug metabolism. Current Drug Metabolism is an essential journal for academic, clinical, government and pharmaceutical scientists who wish to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments. The journal covers the following areas:

    In vitro systems including CYP-450; enzyme induction and inhibition; drug-drug interactions and enzyme kinetics; pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics, species scaling and extrapolations; P-glycoprotein and transport carriers; target organ toxicity and interindividual variability; drug metabolism and disposition studies; extrahepatic metabolism; phase I and phase II metabolism; recent developments for the identification of drug metabolites and adducts.
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