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Effects of Dietary Broccoli on Human in Vivo Caffeine Metabolism: A Pilot Study on a Group of Jordanian Volunteers

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Objectives: Induction or inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities, enzymes that activate or detoxify xenobiotics, is one mechanism by which vegetables may alter cancer risk. As the effect of food on CYP enzyme activities have not been studied in the Jordanian population, we examined the effect of supplementing the diet with broccoli on CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 activities.

Methods: Five men and five women, non-smokers, consumed a standard diet of broccoli (500 g) for 6 days. Enzyme activities were determined by measuring urinary metabolite ratios after a 100 mg caffeine tablet on the seventh day.

Results: The mean CYP1A2 activity for men (21.1 ± 3.2) was significantly lower than that for women (27.6 ± 1.6) before the consumption of broccoli (P <0.05). These activities were significantly induced in both men (52.5 ± 6.6) and women (36.6 ± 8.4) after a standard diet of broccoli (P <0.005). Similarly, the mean value of CYP2A6 activity for men was 0.061 ± 0.040 and for women, 0.144 ± 0.039 before consumption of broccoli, which were significantly different (P <0.05). The activity of CYP2A6 was induced in both groups significantly after broccoli consumption (P <0.05). The mean value for men was 0.193 ± 0.02 and for women, 0.214 ± 0.064.

Conclusion: Our study on a group of Jordanians confirmed the well-established observation that broccoli induces CYP1A2 activity. This study also demonstrates the effect of gender and broccoli consumption on CYP2A6 activity in Jordanians.
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Keywords: Broccoli; CYP1A2; CYP2A6; Caffeine; In vivo; Jordanian population; Urine metabolic ratio

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jordan, Amman 11942 Jordan.

Publication date: January 1, 2007

More about this publication?
  • Current Drug Metabolism aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in drug metabolism and disposition. The journal serves as an international forum for the publication of timely reviews in drug metabolism. Current Drug Metabolism is an essential journal for academic, clinical, government and pharmaceutical scientists who wish to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments. The journal covers the following areas:

    In vitro systems including CYP-450; enzyme induction and inhibition; drug-drug interactions and enzyme kinetics; pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics, species scaling and extrapolations; P-glycoprotein and transport carriers; target organ toxicity and interindividual variability; drug metabolism and disposition studies; extrahepatic metabolism; phase I and phase II metabolism; recent developments for the identification of drug metabolites and adducts.
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