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A Review of Nanoelectrospray Ionization Applications for Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics

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Although traditionally reserved for proteomic analysis, nanoESI has found increased use for small molecule applications related to drug metabolism/pharmacokinetics (DMPK). NanoESI, which refers to ESI performed at flow rates in the range of 200 to 1000 nL/min using smaller diameter emitters (10 to 100 μm id), produces smaller droplets than conventional ESI resulting in more efficient ionization. Benefits include greater sensitivity, enhanced dynamic range, and a reduced competition for ionization. These advantages may now be harnessed largely due to the introduction of a commercial system for automated nanoESI infusion. This development in turn has allowed ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) scientists to consider novel approaches to mass spectrometric analysis without direct LC interfacing. While it is freely acknowledged that nanoESI infusion is not likely to supplant LC-MS as the primary analytical platform for ADME, nanoESI infusion has been successfully applied to both quantitative (bioanalysis) and qualitative (metabolite identification) applications. This review summarizes published applications of this technology and offers a perspective on where it fits best into the DMPK laboratory.





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Keywords: (ESI-MS); ADME; Bioanalyses; Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry; nanospray; solid phase micro-extraction (SPME)

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Lilly Research Laboratories,McCarty Street, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, 46285, USA.

Publication date: December 1, 2006

More about this publication?
  • Current Drug Metabolism aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in drug metabolism and disposition. The journal serves as an international forum for the publication of timely reviews in drug metabolism. Current Drug Metabolism is an essential journal for academic, clinical, government and pharmaceutical scientists who wish to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments. The journal covers the following areas:

    In vitro systems including CYP-450; enzyme induction and inhibition; drug-drug interactions and enzyme kinetics; pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics, species scaling and extrapolations; P-glycoprotein and transport carriers; target organ toxicity and interindividual variability; drug metabolism and disposition studies; extrahepatic metabolism; phase I and phase II metabolism; recent developments for the identification of drug metabolites and adducts.
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