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Akt in Prostate Cancer: Possible Role in Androgen-Independence

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Akt, a downstream effector of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), has often been implicated in prostate cancer. Studies in prostate tumor cell lines revealed that Akt activation is probably important for the progression of prostate cancer to an androgen-independent state. Investigations of human prostate cancer tissues show that although there is neither Akt gene amplification nor enhanced protein expression in prostate cancer compared to normal tissue, poorly differentiated tumors exhibit increased expression of a phosphorylated (activated) form of Akt compared to normal tissue, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) or well-differentiated prostate cancer. Akt phosphorylation is accompanied by the inactivation of ERK, a member of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. In this article, we postulate that Akt promotes androgen-independent survival of prostate tumor cells by modulating the expression and activation of the androgen receptor (AR).
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Keywords: akt; androgen receptor; mapk; pi3k; prostate cancer; pten

Document Type: Review Article

Affiliations: Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd C Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA.

Publication date: December 1, 2003

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  • Current Drug Metabolism aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in drug metabolism and disposition. The journal serves as an international forum for the publication of timely reviews in drug metabolism. Current Drug Metabolism is an essential journal for academic, clinical, government and pharmaceutical scientists who wish to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments. The journal covers the following areas:

    In vitro systems including CYP-450; enzyme induction and inhibition; drug-drug interactions and enzyme kinetics; pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics, species scaling and extrapolations; P-glycoprotein and transport carriers; target organ toxicity and interindividual variability; drug metabolism and disposition studies; extrahepatic metabolism; phase I and phase II metabolism; recent developments for the identification of drug metabolites and adducts.
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