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Mycobacterium tuberculosis Treatment Modalities and Recent Insights

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Antimicrobial therapy of infections caused by M. tuberculosis is a challenge due to poor response to therapy and recurrent infections. Under in vitro conditions, antibiotics effectively kill M. tuberculosis within the first two weeks. However, an extended treatment time of 6-9 months is required to eradicate M. tuberculosis infection, mainly due to the intracellular survival of this pathogen and poor penetration of the antibiotics into the intracellular compartment of the host cells. Recent advances in the field of drug delivery have led to the use of different antibiotic incorporated nano- and micro- formulations such as liposomes, polymeric particles, mesoporous silica particles and particulate suspensions for targeted drug delivery applications into the intracellular compartment of the macrophages. The drug incorporated nano- and micro-particles are prone to be easily internalized, which leads to preferential delivery of the drugs into the tissues and organs of interest. Other advantages of these nano- and micro-particles over the free drugs are their comparatively higher stability and bioavailability. This review highlights the current strategies and challenges in treatment, the different antibiotics available, their modes of action, generation and mechanism of drug resistance and recent advances in the intracellular drug delivery using nanoparticles for the treatment of tuberculosis.
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Keywords: Antibiotics; cytokines; immune response; intracellular pathogen; macrophages; nanoparticles; tuberculosis

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: December 1, 2014

More about this publication?
  • The aim of Current Drug Delivery is to publish peer-reviewed articles, short communications, short and in-depth reviews in the rapidly developing field of drug delivery. Modern drug research aims to build in delivery properties of a drug at the design phase, however in many cases this ideal cannot be met and the development of delivery systems becomes as important as the development as the drugs themselves.

    The journal aims to cover the latest outstanding developments in drug and vaccine delivery employing physical, physico-chemical and chemical methods. The drugs include a wide range of bioactive compounds from simple pharmaceuticals to peptides, proteins, nucleotides, nucleosides and sugars. The journal will also report progress in the fields of transport routes and mechanisms including efflux proteins and multi-drug resistance.

    The journal is essential for all pharmaceutical scientists involved in drug design, development and delivery.
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