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Molecular Basis of Familial and Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease

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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multifactorial disease with genetic (70%) and environmental (30%) causes. Among the genetic factors are genes associated with a family history of the disease (familial AD, FAD) and sporadic AD (SAD). The genes: APP (amyloid precursor protein), PSEN1 (Presenilin 1) and PSEN2 (Presenilin 2) are responsible for the presence of FAD. The APOE gene is responsible for the sporadic form of the disease. Other molecular factors related to the immunological cause (TREM2) of the disease are a disorder of the lipid (ABCA1, ABCA7) or biothiol (MTHFD1) metabolism and of the transport of metabolites (BIN1). Currently, it is believed that APOE is a risk factor for both SAD and late-onset FAD.

The pathomechanism of AD is most commonly explained as based on the amyloid cascade theory. This theory is related to the FAD, although there are reports indicating the probability of its occurrence in the SAD. It seems that the excessive deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of tau protein hyperphosphorylated forms contribute to the damage of both DNA and RNA. Furthermore, it is believed that RNA-interference can affect both the level of pathological proteins (Aβ, tau protein) and the onset and progress of AD.

It seems that a complete understanding of both FAD and SAD pathogenesis may contribute to the search for earlier clinical diagnosis and to an understanding of later occurrence of the disease, which may help modify its course and affect more effective therapy of this incurable neurological disease.
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Keywords: DNA; FAD; Genetic and biochemical factors; RNA; SAD

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 01 September 2016

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  • Current Alzheimer Research publishes peer-reviewed frontier review and research articles on all areas of Alzheimer's disease. This multidisciplinary journal will help in understanding the neurobiology, genetics, pathogenesis, and treatment strategies of Alzheimer's disease. The journal publishes objective reviews written by experts and leaders actively engaged in research using cellular, molecular, and animal models. The journal also covers original articles on recent research in fast emerging areas of molecular diagnostics, brain imaging, drug development and discovery, and clinical aspects of Alzheimer's disease. Manuscripts are encouraged that relate to the synergistic mechanism of Alzheimer's disease with other dementia and neurodegenerative disorders. Book reviews, meeting reports and letters-to-the-editor are also published. The journal is essential reading for researchers, educators and physicians with interest in age-related dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Current Alzheimer Research provides a comprehensive 'bird's-eye view' of the current state of Alzheimer's research for neuroscientists, clinicians, health science planners, granting, caregivers and families of this devastating disease.
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