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A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis about the Effect of Bisphosphonates on the Risk of Skeletal-Related Event in Men with Prostate Cancer

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Background: Although the adjuvant therapy of bisphosphonates in prostate cancer is effective in improving bone mineral density, it is still uncertain whether bisphosphonates could decrease the risk of Skeletal- Related Event (SRE) in patients with prostate cancer. We reviewed and analyzed the effect of different types of bisphosphonates on the risk of SRE, defined as pathological fracture, spinal cord compression, radiation therapy to the bone, surgery to bone, hypercalcemia, bone pain, or death as a result of prostate cancer.

Methods: A systemic literature search was conducted on PubMed and related bibliographies. The emphasis during data extraction was laid on the Hazard Ratio (HR) and the corresponding 95% Confidence Interval (CI) from every eligible Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT). HR was pooled with the fixed effects model, and preplanned subgroup analyses were performed.

Results: 5 RCTs (n = 4651) were included and analyzed finally after screening 51 articles. The meta-analysis of all participants showed no significant decrease in the risk of SRE when adding bisphosphonates to control group (HR = 0.968, 95% CI = 0.874 - 1.072, p = 0.536) with low heterogeneity (I2 = 0.0% (d.f. = 4) p = 0.679). There was no significant improvement on SRE neither in the subgroups with Metastases (M1) or Castration-Sensitive Prostate Cancer (CSPC) (respectively HR = 0.968, 95% CI = 0.874 - 1.072, p = 0.536, I2 = 0.0% (d.f. = 4) p = 0.679; HR = 0.954, 95% CI = 0.837 - 1.088, p = 0.484, I2 = 0.0% (d.f. = 3) p = 0.534).

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that bisphosphonates could not statistically significantly reduce the risk of SRE in patients with prostate cancer, neither in the subgroups with M1 or CSPC.
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Keywords: Prostatic neoplasms; bisphosphonates; hazard ratio; meta-analysis; prostate cancer; skeletal-related event

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: September 1, 2020

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