Nanomaterials and Nanopatterns Based on Laser Processing: A Brief Review on Current State of Art
Lasers have shown their appreciable engagements in the synthesis, post processing and characterization of nano-scale materials since its discovery in 1960. Laser ablation in the gaseous media have been widely explored for the fabrication of thin films, nanoparticles and nanostructure of various shapes, size and morphologies, as well as in the spectroscopy of atoms, molecules and clusters. Laser ablates solid target in the gaseous and liquid media for the generation of atomic/molecular clusters in the hot and dense plasma, initiates several photochemical reactions such as polymerization and atomization, dissociate gaseous precursors into their fragments. All these processes are the keys for the synthesis of nanoparticles of various size, shapes, and morphology in the gaseous as well as in the liquid media. Here, we present a current state of art on various laser based approaches for the synthesis of nanomaterials such as conventional pulsed laser deposition, nanoparticle assisted pulsed laser deposition (NAPLD), and thermal assisted pulsed laser deposition (TAPLD) of target materials in the gaseous media for the synthesis of thin films, particles, and nanostructures of desired composition. Laser chemical vapour deposition, and laser pyrolysis, includes laser induced thermal or resonant dissociation of gaseous precursors into their fragments and clustering of some of the dissociated products into nanomaterials of different shapes, size, and composition. Two photon polymerization (TPP) possesses polymerization of three dimensional volume of photoresist material by absorption of two photon from the laser radiation to fabricate 3D microstructures/patterns. Photolithography has the ability to create 1D, 2D and 3D nano/micro patterns on the substrate, and is widely employed by semiconductor industry for the fabrication of nanoscale device to follow Moore's law in future. Continuous research and development in shorter wavelength light sources facilitates this technique to fabricate smaller and smaller electronic devices Liquid assisted pulsed laser ablation is a fastest growing laser based nanomaterials processing method owing to its simplicity, comparatively cheaper, one step process, ability to used stabilizer, in-situ functinalization etc. Liquid assisted laser based nanomaterials processing provides ways for the generation of highly colloidal solution of nanoparticles and nanostructures, nano/microstructuring on the surface of solid, and fabrication of films on the substrates through laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) of particles from colloid to the substrates. Particle generation using liquid assisted pulsed laser ablation (LA-PLA) includes ablation of solid bulk target submerged in the liquid, laser irradiation of liquid suspended particles for their resizing, reshaping, surface modification and phase conversion, as well as laser irradiation of solution of metal salts/liquid precursors. All of these gas and liquid assisted approaches of nanostructures/nanomaterials processing are discussed in brief.
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Document Type: Review Article
Publication date: March 1, 2012
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- Science of Advanced Materials (SAM) is an interdisciplinary peer-reviewed journal consolidating research activities in all aspects of advanced materials in the fields of science, engineering and medicine into a single and unique reference source. SAM provides the means for materials scientists, chemists, physicists, biologists, engineers, ceramicists, metallurgists, theoreticians and technocrats to publish original research articles as reviews with author's photo and short biography, full research articles and communications of important new scientific and technological findings, encompassing the fundamental and applied research in all latest aspects of advanced materials.
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