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Colloidal Nanoparticles for Signal Enhancement in Optical Diagnostic Assays

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The use of nanotechnologies for the development of highly sensitive and affordable diagnostic assays has significantly improved the ability to detect and characterize multiple types of biomarkers. Semiconductor and metal nanoparticles with unique optical properties have been successfully integrated within biomarker detection schemes for the generation and enhancement of optical signals in label-based and label-free assays. Highly sensitive label-based diagnostics has been realized particularly via using quantum dots (QDs) as labeling probes. Similarly, many label-free techniques that are emerging as potential complements to label-based approaches benefit from signal enhancement strategies using e.g., metal nanoparticles. This review presents a concise overview of recent advances in diagnostic assays that utilize nanoparticles for the generation and enhancement of optical signals in fluorescence- and surface plasmon resonance-based techniques. Advanced diagnostic assays that utilize nanoparticles provide major improvements in detection sensitivity, which can potentially meet the challenging requirements of clinical diagnostics.
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Keywords: BIOMARKERS; DIAGNOSTIC IMMUNOASSAYS; FLUORESCENCE; GOLD NANOPARTICLES; QUANTUM DOTS; SURFACE PLASMON RESONANCE

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: October 1, 2018

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  • Journal for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (JNN) is an international and multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal with a wide-ranging coverage, consolidating research activities in all areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology into a single and unique reference source. JNN is the first cross-disciplinary journal to publish original full research articles, rapid communications of important new scientific and technological findings, timely state-of-the-art reviews with author's photo and short biography, and current research news encompassing the fundamental and applied research in all disciplines of science, engineering and medicine.
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