Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Induce DNA Damage in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes from Polyposis coli, Colon Cancer Patients and Healthy Individuals: An Ex Vivo/In Vitro Study
Titanium dioxide (TiO2), in bulk and nanomaterial format, has been used as a whitening and brightening agent in pigments, paints, plastics and paper, but also as an ingredient of pharmaceutical products and increasingly as a food additive. TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) have been also reported in soil, vegetables and the human body suggesting that the gastrointestinal tract may be a very important route of exposure. This study determined if TiO2 nanoparticles differentially affected gastrointestinal patients and healthy volunteers. The cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of TiO2 NPs have been examined in peripheral blood lymphocytes in polyposis coli and colon cancer patients as well as healthy individuals. Physicochemical characterisation of TiO2 NPs involved: Dynamic light scattering (size distribution from 104 nm in ddH2O to 1303 nm in RPMI), Zeta potential (−28.7 mV) and SEM (average size 34 nm) measurements. Cells were exposed to nanoparticle concentrations ranging from 10 to 80 μg/ml. Techniques used were: The Comet assay, the Micronucleus assay and the Micronucleus assay with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Concentration dependent effects of TiO2 NPs in both patient groups and healthy individuals were observed in the Comet assay, when OTM and % Tail DNA parameters were examined. Also the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in binucleated cells was increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Experiments revealed that polyposis coli and colon cancer patients had a higher level of DNA damage in the Comet assay and a higher number of MN than healthy individuals. Thus, TiO2 NPs induced concentration-dependent increases of damage, regardless of confounding factors, differentially in patients and healthy controls.
Keywords: Colon Cancer Patients; Comet Assay; FISH; Micronucleus Assay; Polyposis coli; Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Division of Medical Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford, West Yorkshire, BD7 1DP, UK 2: Bradford Royal Infirmary, Bradford, BD9 6RJ, and St Luke’s Hospital, Bradford, BD50NA, UK 3: 4: CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow 226001, UP, India
Publication date: December 1, 2017
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