Biomedical Applications of Nanodiamonds: An Overview
Nanodiamonds are a novel class of nanomaterials which have raised much attention for application in biomedical field, as they combine the possibility of being produced on large scale using relatively inexpensive synthetic processes, of being fluorescent as a consequence of the presence of nitrogen vacancies, of having their surfaces functionalized, and of having good biocompatibility. Among other applications, we mainly focus on drug delivery, including cell interaction, targeting, cancer therapy, gene and protein delivery. In addition, nanodiamonds for bone and dental implants and for antibacterial use is discussed. Techniques for detection and imaging of nanodiamonds in biological tissues are also reviewed, including electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, Raman mapping, atomic force microscopy, thermal imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography, either in vitro, in vivo, or ex vivo. Toxicological aspects related to the use of nanodiamonds are also discussed. Finally, patents, preclinical and clinical trials based on the use of nanodiamonds for biomedical applications are reviewed.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: February 1, 2015
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- Journal for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (JNN) is an international and multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal with a wide-ranging coverage, consolidating research activities in all areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology into a single and unique reference source. JNN is the first cross-disciplinary journal to publish original full research articles, rapid communications of important new scientific and technological findings, timely state-of-the-art reviews with author's photo and short biography, and current research news encompassing the fundamental and applied research in all disciplines of science, engineering and medicine.
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