Experimental and Simulation Study on Formulation of Clove Essential Oil Products Using Alternative Surfactant
The formulation of clove essential oil as an emulsion using nonpurified aqueous extract from Pfaffia glomerata roots as surfactant has been experimentally demonstrated. Firstly, a commercial surfactant (OSA-modified starch) was used to evaluate the formulation of nano-emulsions in our devices. Results show that, the method of emulsification and its duration had insignificant influence on all response variables. On the other hand, the influence of OSA-modified starch concentration was significant (P < 0.01) regarding droplet size (d 32 and d 43), specific surface area and percentage of demulsified oil. Volume fraction of oil influence was significant (P < 0.01) to the droplet size (d 43), polidispersity, specific surface area and percentage of demulsified oil. Based on these results, the best condition was selected to perform the evaluation of the use of nonpurified aqueous extract from Pfaffia glomerata roots as an alternative surfactant. The properties of the emulsions prepared with this alternative surfactant were quite different to the properties obtained by OSA-modified starch. A stable emulsion with a droplet size in the range of 900–1046 nm was obtained. At the end, different technological scenarios for the production of clove essential oil as an emulsion or as dry microcapsules were compared in terms of utilities consumption and total utility cost using the simulation software SuperPro Designer. The use of the ultrasonication method was more convenient during emulsification, while for encapsulation purposes promising results were obtained by carbon dioxide assisted nebulisation with a bubble dryer (CAN-BD) process. Adopting this process, besides the benefit of low energy consumption, part of the available infrastructure, used for obtaining the essential oil, could be shared.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: June 1, 2013
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- Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology is an international multidisciplinary peer- reviewed journal covering all aspects of colloid science including colloids preparation, characterization, structure-property relationships, spectroscopy, chemical and physical properties and applications of colloids in biotechnology, medicine and pharmaceuticals. This journal deals with interdisciplinary research areas of chemistry, physics, biology, materials science, polymer science, nanotechnology covering all topics related to colloids such as latexes, emulsions, suspensions, micellar systems, gels, composites, hybrids, surfactants, aerosols, foams, minerals, soft matter, microfluidics, encapsulation processes of active molecules, biomolecules, surfacial and interfacial processes, catalysis, electrochemistry, theoretical aspects, computer simulations and colloids in biotechnology and medicine.
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