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A Novel Surgical Approach for the Reconstruction of Critical-Size Mandibular Defects Using Calcium Sulphate/Hydroxyapatite Cement, BMP-7 and Mesenchymal Stem Cells-Histological Assessment

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A novel construct has been developed to induce bone formation within a pedicle muscle flap. A critical size defect (20 × 15 mm2) was created in the mandible of ten rabbits. The masseter muscle was adapted to fill the surgical defect and a combination of calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite cement (CERAMENT | SPINE SUPPORT), BMP-7 and rabbits' mesenchymal stromal cells (rMSCs) was injected into the muscle tissue. Bone regeneration was evaluated 3 months after surgery. Limited areas of bone formation anatomically bridged the defect, despite the new bone forming throughout the muscle and within the connective tissue surrounding the remnants of the cement. The bone was thicker in the bucco-lingual direction compared to the contra lateral (non-operated) side. Quantitative histomorphometry assessment showed that the average bone surface area was 21.2 ± 6.0 mm2, this was significantly greater than that of the contra-lateral non-operated control side. The calculated amounts of residual cement and soft tissue or spaces were 20 ± 12% and 41 ± 10%, respectively. The average mineral apposition rate (MAR) was 1.92 μm/day. The findings demonstrated the remarkable potential of the use of local muscle flaps for injectable bio-cement loaded with BMP and seeded with rMSCs to induce bone formation for the reconstruction of bony defects.
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Keywords: BIOENGINEERING; BONE; CALCIUM SULPHATE; SCAFFOLDING

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 01 January 2016

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  • Journal of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering (JBT) is an international peer-reviewed journal that covers all aspects of biomaterials, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The journal focuses on the broad spectrum of research topics including all types of biomaterials, their properties, bioimplants and medical devices, biofilms, bioimaging, BioMEMS/NEMS, biosensors, fibers, tissue scaffolds, tissue engineering and modeling, artificial organs, tissue interfaces, interactions between biomaterials, blood, cells, tissues, and organs, regenerative medicine and clinical performance.
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