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Anodized Ti and Ti6Al4V Possessing Nanometer Surface Features Enhances Osteoblast Adhesion

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Current titanium (Ti) and Ti6Al4V implants used in orthopedic applications have long-term failure problems. Optimizing the bone-implant interface is a critical step to improving their cytocompatibility and osseointegrative (or bonding to juxtaposed bone) properties. Previous studies have demonstrated greater osteoblast (bone-forming cells) functions on ceramics, metals, polymers, and composites composed of nanometer compared to micron particles. In this context, the objective of this in vitro study was to create unique nanometer surface features on metallic implants by a quick and relatively inexpensive electrochemical method: anodization. Anodization was completed on Ti and Ti6Al4V in 1.5 wt. % hydrofluoric acid (HF) and the direct-current voltage was set to 20 volts for 10 seconds to 5 minutes. Scanning electron microscopy provided evidence of various nanometer surface features on the anodized Ti-based samples whereas the starting material had none. The amount of nanometer surface features was dependent on the time of applied voltage. In addition, multimode scanning probe microscopy confirmed that the anodized surfaces had significantly higher root-mean-square roughness at nano-scale dimensions compared to the unanodized Ti-based surfaces. Most importantly, in vitro studies indicated that osteoblast adhesion was enhanced on the anodized metal substrates as compared to respective unanodized counterparts. For these reasons, this study provided evidence that anodization of Ti-based metals creates nanometer surface features that promote osteoblast adhesion; an event critical for improving orthopedic implant efficacy.
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Keywords: ANODIZATION; CELL ADHESION; METALS; NANO-SURFACE; NANOTECHNOLOGY; ORTHOPEDIC; OSTEOBLAST; ROUGHNESS; TI6AL4V; TITANIUM

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 01 March 2005

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  • Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology (JBN) is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal providing broad coverage in all research areas focused on the applications of nanotechnology in medicine, drug delivery systems, infectious disease, biomedical sciences, biotechnology, and all other related fields of life sciences.
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