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Performance Comparison and Electromagnetic Dosimetry of Rigid, Hybrid and Textile Antennas

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This paper presents the free space and on-body performance comparison of microstrip patch antennas operating at 2.45 GHz Industrial, Science, and Medical (ISM) band for body-centric wireless communications application. The performance comparison of three model microstrip patch antennas, namely rigid, hybrid, and textile is performed in CST Microwave Studio (MWS) and Hugo Voxel Model is used for electromagnetic dosimetry analysis. It was found that the hybrid antenna achieved optimum performance compared to rigid and textile antennas, with return loss (S11) of −30.30 db at resonant frequency 2.45 GHz and VSWR of 1.06 in free space analysis. The hybrid antenna radiates unidirectional at gain and radiation efficiency of 6.96 dB and 86.67%. From on-body analysis, it was found that all the antennas suffer from frequency detuning, reduced efficiency and gain and radiation pattern fragmentation due to electromagnetic absorption in human lossy tissues. The electronic dosimetry on SAR exposure on chest and back for all antennas was well below limitation of 2 W/kg. The maximum SAR (0.648 W/kg) was found when the rigid antenna was mounted on the back of the human body and the minimum SAR (0.262 W/kg) was found when the textile antenna was placed on the chest.
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Keywords: Free Space Performance; ISM Band; On-Body Performance; SAR

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Faculty of Innovative Design and Technology, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Kampus Gong Badak, 21300 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia 2: Embedded Computing Research Cluster, School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Jalan Kangar-Alor Star, Taman Pertiwi Indah Seriab, 01000 Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia

Publication date: November 1, 2017

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