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Skin Wounds as a Risk Factor for Leptospirosis in Semarang City: A Meta-Analysis Study

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Background: A wound is one of entry points of leptospires into the human body. Previous leptospirosis risk factor studies in Semarang city, before 2012, had included skin wounds as an examined factor. However, results of these studies varied. This study is focused to answer whether skin wounds is related to the occurrence of leptospirosis in Semarang city, and the size of the risk to get leptospirosis when skin wounds exist. Method: Systematic review and meta-analysis of previous leptospirosis risk factor studies in Semarang city were performed. Steps taken in the study were collecting previous articles on leptospirosis risk factors in Semarang published in national and international journal or grey literatures, all the selected articles were reviewed for their quality based on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Next step was statistical analysis using Comprehensive Meta-analysis (CMA) program. Results: Seven previous studies were included in the analysis, all of them were using case-control design. Calculation of Pooled Odds Ratio was based on random effect model. Heterogeneity of the effect-size of all included studies was shown by Cochran’s Q test, p: 0.031 and I 2 = 56.68%. Pooled Odds Ratio of all studies included in the analysis was 8.46 with 95% CI: 3.85–18.59 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: People with skin wounds have risk of getting leptospirosis 8.46 times than those without skin wounds. Health practitioners who live in Semarang and find patients with high fever and history of skin wounds should think of leptospirosis infection in their differential diagnosis.
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Keywords: Indonesia; Leptospirosis; Risk Factor; Semarang; Skin Wound

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Faculty of Public Health Diponegoro University, Semarang 50275, Indonesia; School of Postgraduate Studies Diponegoro University, Semarang, 50241, Indonesia

Publication date: April 1, 2017

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