Optimization of Parameters for the Fabrication of Curcumin Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles Using Taguchi Robust Design
The aim of the present study was to formulate and optimize curcumin loaded Eudragit E100 nanoparticles (CENPs) prepared by an emulsification-diffusion-evaporation method using L9 (34) Taguchi orthogonal experimental design (TOED). Four independent variables namely, drug-polymer ratio, poloxamer 188 (PLX 188) concentration, homogenization speed and amount of organic phase with three levels, low, medium and high for each factor that affect the formulation of polymeric nanoparticles were selected. The mean particle size (PS) and percent entrapment efficiency (%EE) of CENPs were considered as the main response variables for optimization of formulation. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to study the statistically significant value (P < 0.05) of response parameters. From the study, it was found that, the amount of organic phase and homogenization speed significantly affected the PS and drug-polymer ratio and PLX 188 concentration affected the %EE. The optimized CENPs exhibited a PS of 248.4 nm, polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.212, zeta potential of 28.9 mV, %EE of 65.77 and drug loading (%DL) of 0.559. The optimized formulation further evaluated for physical state characterization using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies, which showed existence of drug in amorphous form without any physical and chemical interaction in the polymeric nanoparticles. Moreover, the morphological analysis by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that CENPs were spherical in shape with a smooth surface. The in vitrorelease studies of curcumin from the optimized CENPs in phosphate buffer saline (PBS; pH 7.4) exhibited burst effect during first 30 min followed by sustained curcumin release extending upto 24 hr, which occurred by Fickian release mechanism (n ≤ 0.5). Results obtained by TOED exhibited significantly small PS, good %EE and sustained delivery of curcumin with less number of runs and time.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 01 May 2014
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