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Free Content Pediatric Demyelinating Disease: Emerging Patterns from Multiple Sclerosis to Anti-Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein‐Associated Encephalomyelitis

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Ongoing progress is being made in the understanding of pediatric demyelinating diseases, including the recent discovery of anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (anti-MOG) encephalitis. Radiologists play a key role in the diagnostic work-up of these patients. Demyelinating diseases can be challenging to differentiate from each other and can mimic anti-MOG encephalitis, especially because the various disorders can present with nonspecific radiologic cord findings and overlapping CNS features. There are some key imaging features that can be explained by the more recent development in the pathophysiological basis of these different entities. Attention to pertinent clinical history allows for improved diagnostic accuracy. Identifying MR imaging predictors of a particular demyelinating diagnosis in the pediatric population can have broad implications on treatment.
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Keywords: ADEM = acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; AQP4 = aquaporin-4; MOG = myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein; NMO = neuromyelitis optica; NMOSD = neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder; ON = optic neuritis; TM = transverse myelitis; anti-MOG = anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: June 1, 2020

More about this publication?
  • Neurographics is the peer-reviewed, bimonthly educational journal of the American Society of Neuroradiology. The journal comprises articles selected from material presented at the ASNR Annual Meeting. Neurographics also publishes other high-quality submissions that are primarily educational and have a high emphasis on a pictorial approach. Neurographics offers CME credit for reading review articles and completing quiz-based self-assessment activities.

    Visit the ASNR Education Connection to view all available CME courses.

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