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Free Content Pembrolizumab-Related Neuroinflammation: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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We report, to our knowledge, the first case of extralimbic pembrolizumab‐related neuroinflammation in a 71-year-old man with insidious and progressive neurologic decline during single-agent therapy for metastatic melanoma. The imaging features are nonspecific and consistent with a progressive leukoencephalopathy, for which paraneoplastic, autoimmune, and infectious encephalitis are diagnostic considerations. Recognition of this entity is important because checkpoint inhibitor treatments are increasing and permanent neurologic sequelae may be thwarted with the cessation of therapy and implementation of immunosuppression.
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Keywords: CTLA = cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein; PD-1 = programmed cell death protein 1; PD-L1 = programmed death-ligand 1

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: April 1, 2018

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  • Neurographics is the peer-reviewed, bimonthly educational journal of the American Society of Neuroradiology. The journal comprises articles selected from material presented at the ASNR Annual Meeting. Neurographics also publishes other high-quality submissions that are primarily educational and have a high emphasis on a pictorial approach. Neurographics offers CME credit for reading review articles and completing quiz-based self-assessment activities. CME credit for review articles may be claimed up to 3 years after an article's publication date. Visit to view all available CME courses.
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