Embryogenesis of the Olfactory System: Part I: Embryogenesis of the Olfactory Nasal Mucosa and the Olfactory Bulb
Learning Objective: To understand more completely the development of the “peripheral” portion of the olfactory system.
Keywords: ACTIVINβB = protein complex involved in cell proliferation and differentiation; BMP = bone morphogenetic protein (BMP 2,4,7); CADHERIN = calcium-dependent adhesion proteins are a class of type 1 transmembrane proteins (they play roles in cell adhesion, and they are calcium ion dependent); COUP-TF1 = chicken ovalbumin upstream promotor transcription factor 1 (a nuclear hormone receptor); EGF = epidermal growth factor; EMX2 = homolog of the Drosophila empty spiracles gene (it is a transcription factor that helps pattern the brain); FGF = fibroblast growth factor(s) (FGF8 is one of these factors); GDF-11 = growth differentiation factor 11; HGF = hepatocyte growth factor; IGF-I = insulin growth factor I; LIF = leukemia inhibitory factor; NO = nitric oxide; Neuropilin = neuropilins are multifunctional non‐tyrosine kinase receptors that play a key role in mediating axonal guidance in the developing nervous system; OCT1 = octamer transcription factor, a stress sensor; ORN = olfactory receptor neuron; PAX = a group of paired box gene transcription factors, including PAX 6 and 7; RA = retinoic acid; SEMA3A = semaphorin 3a, whose proteins can be chemoattractive or chemorepulsive to apical dendrites; SHH = sonic hedgehog protein; SLIT1, SLIT2 = Slit homolog 1 and 2 genes, guidance molecules; SOX2 = sex-determined region Y-box is a neural-inducing homeobox gene; TENASCIN-C = a glycoprotein that is expressed in the extracellular matrix; it plays a role in restricting neurogenic areas of the central nervous system; WNT = gene family that presently consists of 19 genes that make ligands that are signaling molecules prominent in many areas of embryogenesis (WNT 1‐19); cAMP = cyclic adenosine monophosphate; iNOS = nitric oxide synthase
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: February 1, 2018
Neurographics is the peer-reviewed, bimonthly educational journal of the American Society of Neuroradiology. The journal comprises articles selected from material presented at the ASNR Annual Meeting. Neurographics also publishes other high-quality submissions that are primarily educational and have a high emphasis on a pictorial approach. Neurographics offers CME credit for reading review articles and completing quiz-based self-assessment activities.
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