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Free Content Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Fiber Tractography of Pediatric Posterior Fossa Malformations

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Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an advanced MR imaging technique that provides noninvasive qualitative and quantitative information about the white matter microarchitecture. DTI and fiber tractography have been increasingly used in the past decade to investigate the microstructural neuroarchitecture of posterior fossa malformations. This article aimed to review DTI and fiber tractography findings in several posterior fossa malformations, and highlighted the added value of DTI and fiber tractography compared with conventional MR imaging. DTI and fiber tractography may provide information that is helpful to better understand the pathogenesis of selected posterior fossa malformations. In addition, DTI may elucidate the anatomic role of the cerebellum for neurocognitive functions in children with posterior fossa malformations and DTI scalars of the cerebellar, and brain stem white matter tracts may serve as a predictive biomarker for cognitive outcome. Finally, quantitative DTI analysis of cerebellar and brain stem white matter tracts may help to select candidates for therapeutic interventions and may enable monitoring of the therapy response.

Learning Objective: To recognize the utility of diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography to study malformations of the posterior fossa and highlight the additional information that diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography may provide compared with conventional MR imaging sequences.
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Keywords: 2D = 2 dimensional; 3D = 3 dimensional; AD = axial diffusivity; ADC = apparent diffusion coefficient; CI = Chiari type I malformation; CII = Chiari type II malformation; CIII = Chiari type III malformation; CSF = cerebrospinal fluid; CST = corticospinal tract; DEC = directionally encoded color; DTI = diffusion tensor imaging; DWI = diffusion weighted imaging; DWM = Dandy-Walker malformation; FA = fractional anisotropy; FLAIR = fluid attenuated inversion recovery; FOV = field of view; FT = fiber tractography; ICP = inferior cerebellar peduncle; JS = Joubert syndrome; MCP = middle cerebellar peduncle; MD = mean diffusivity; ML = medial lemniscus; MR = magnetic resonance; PCH = pontocerebellar hypoplasia; PTCD = pontine tegmental cap dysplasia; RD = radial diffusivity; SCP = superior cerebellar peduncle; TE = echo time; TPF = transverse pontine fiber; TR = repetition time

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: July 1, 2017

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  • Neurographics is the peer-reviewed, bimonthly educational journal of the American Society of Neuroradiology. The journal comprises articles selected from material presented at the ASNR Annual Meeting. Neurographics also publishes other high-quality submissions that are primarily educational and have a high emphasis on a pictorial approach. Neurographics offers CME credit for reading review articles and completing quiz-based self-assessment activities. CME credit for review articles may be claimed up to 3 years after an article's publication date. Visit https://members.asnr.org/webcast/content/course_list.asp?src=Neurographics to view all available CME courses.
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