The Current Embryology of the Foregut and Its Derivatives
Learning Objective: Understand how the complex embryology of the foregut produces anatomic variants and pathology in its derivative tissues.
Keywords: ACT1β = actin-1β, a nonmuscle cytoskeletal actin; ALK = activin receptor-like kinase (now ACVR); BMP = bone morphogenetic protein; CDX = caudal type homeobox protein; Crescent = frizzled related protein-2 or frzb2, a dorsal-ventral patterning protein; EOMESODERMIN = T-box brain protein-2 (Tbr2), a T-box transcription factor; EYA = eyes absent homolog, a transcription factor; FGF = fibroblastic growth factor; FOXA = forkhead box transcription factor; GATA= transcription factors binding to the “GATA” DNA sequence; GLI2/3 = hedgehog-dependent transcription factors; GSC = homeobox protein Goosecoid; HOXA = a homeobox protein; Hh = Hedgehog signaling pathway; LIM = Lin1/Isl1/Mec3 class of zinc finger transcription factors; Laminin = a major protein in the basal lamina, a layer of the basement membrane; MASH-1/ASCL1 = mammalian achaete-scute homologous gene/achaete-scute complex homolog-1; MRF = myogenic regulatory factors; MYOD= myogenic differentiation gene, a muscle specific basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor; Myogenin = a muscle-specific basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor; NKX1, 2 = homeobox proteins; Neurotrophin = a family of proteins that promote the survival, development, and function of neurons; Nodal = a secreted ligand that belongs to the TGFβ superfamily; Noggin = a BMP antagonist involved in many forms embryonic of development; P63 = a member of the p53 family of transcription factors; PAX = paired box transcription factor; PDX = pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1, also known as insulin promoter actor 1; PHOX2b = paired-like homeobox 2b, also known as neuroblastoma PHOX (NBPHOX), a “homeodomain” transcription factor expressed in the autonomic nervous system; PTCH = patched protein, a receptor in the Hedgehog signaling pathway; RA = retinoic acid; RET proto-oncogene = “rearranged during transfection,” a receptor tyrosine kinase; SHH = Sonic hedgehog protein; SOX = Sry-related homeobox gene; TBX1 = T-box protein-1 aka testis-specific T-box, a transcription factor; TFC = thyroid follicular cell; TGF = transforming growth factor; TITF1/TTF-1 = thyroid transcription factor 1 (now known as Nkx2‐1, a homeobox factor); TNF = tumor necrosis factor; WNT = wingless/int1 family of secreted signaling molecules
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 2016
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