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Free Content Guidelines to Imaging Landmarks for Interventional Spine Procedures: Fluoroscopy and CT Anatomy

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Many diagnostic and therapeutic spine procedures can be performed percutaneously under fluoroscopic imaging guidance. Knowledge of radiographic and cross-sectional anatomy, together with strict adherence to procedural technique, is key for safety and success. This article reviews the fundamental principles of imaging guidance with fluoroscopy. The concepts behind the basic fluoroscopic views are discussed, including the EF and level-specific orthogonal views. Regional spine anatomy and a step-by-step approach for the most common percutaneous spine accesses are reviewed by comparing percutaneous needle access on the standard fluoroscopic views with their 3D and cross-sectional CT anatomy correlates.
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Keywords: AP = antero-posterior; CC = craniocaudal; EF = en face; ESI = epidural steroid injection; LL = lateral-lateral; LOR = loss of resistance; RL = right-left

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: June 1, 2011

More about this publication?
  • Neurographics is the peer-reviewed, bimonthly educational journal of the American Society of Neuroradiology. The journal comprises articles selected from material presented at the ASNR Annual Meeting. Neurographics also publishes other high-quality submissions that are primarily educational and have a high emphasis on a pictorial approach. Neurographics offers CME credit for reading review articles and completing quiz-based self-assessment activities.

    Visit to view all available CME courses.

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