Rapid Determination of Nitroimidazole Residues in Honey by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry
We developed a rapid and efficient means of determining residues of four nitroimidazoles—i.e., dimetridazole, ipronidazole, metronidazole, and ronidazole—and three hydrophilic metabolites—i.e., 2-hydroxymethyl-1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole, 1-methyl-2-(2′-hydroxyisopropyl)-5-nitroimidazole, and 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-hydroxymethyl-nitroimidazole—in honey. We applied a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) procedure improved to suit a nitroimidazole analysis, which is fast (approximately 30 min) and uses less organic solvent. The procedure involves initial single-phase extraction of 5 g of honey with acetonitrile containing 1% acetic acid, followed by liquid–liquid partitioning involving the addition of 5 g sodium chloride, 1.5 g trisodium citrate dihydrate, and 4 g magnesium sulfate. Moreover, matrix from honey was reduced by an SPE method with an alumina-N cartridge. The samples were analyzed using LC/MS/MS. Chromatographic separation of these nitroimidazoles and metabolites was performed in the gradient mode on a pentafluorophenylpropyl-bonded silica column (150 × 2.0 mm, 3 μm particle size) at 40°C. The mobile phase consisted of a 0.01% acetic acid solution and acetonitrile, and the flow rate was 0.2 mL/min. The method was validated using honey spiked with these nitroimidazoles from 0.1 to 0.5 μg/kg. The overall recovery of the seven nitroimidazoles ranged from 76.1 to 98.5%; intra- and interassay CV values were <9.5 and <14.2%, respectively. The LOQ ranged from 0.1 to 0.5 μg/kg. LC/MS/MS coupled with the QuEChERS method showed good potential as a method for determining nitroimidazole residues in honey.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 01 May 2012
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- The Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL publishes refereed papers and reviews in the fields of chemical, biological and toxicological analytical chemistry for the purpose of showcasing the most precise, accurate and sensitive methods for analysis of foods, food additives, supplements and contaminants, cosmetics, drugs, toxins, hazardous substances, pesticides, feeds, fertilizers and the environment available at that point in time. The scope of the Journal includes unpublished original research describing new analytical methods, techniques and applications; improved approaches to sampling, both in the field and the laboratory; better methods of preparing samples for analysis; collaborative studies substantiating the performance of a given method; statistical techniques for evaluating data. The Journal will also publish other articles of general interest to its audience, e.g., technical communications; cautionary notes; comments on techniques, apparatus, and reagents.
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