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Determination of 1,4-Dioxane in Household Detergents and Cleaners

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A possible human carcinogen, 1,4-dioxane, was investigated as to its concentration levels in household detergents and cleaners currently sold in Japan. A solid-phase extraction combined with stable isotope dilution and gas chromatographic/ mass spectrometric determination was evaluated for the determination of 1,4-dioxane in household products. The evaluation of the method was performed using a recovery study of 1,4-dioxane-d8 from detergent and cleaner samples. The mean overall recovery and relative standard deviation were 78 and 15, respectively. The limit of quantitation was 0.05 mg/kg. This method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of 1,4-dioxane in household products. 1,4-Dioxane was detected in 40 out of the 51 investigated samples. The concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 33 mg/kg, and the mean was 2.7 mg/kg. The mean of the products that included anionic surfactants, i.e., alkylpoly(oxyethylene)sulfates, was 7.2 mg/kg, which was higher than the 0.39 mg/kg mean for the other surfactants. Moreover, the 1,4-dioxane load/person was estimated to be 0.061 mg/day/person in Japan, which was 27 of the load from the domestic effluent.
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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 265-1 Higashijima, Akiha-Ku, Niigata 956-8603, Japan. 2: Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, 265-1 Higashijima, Akiha-Ku, Niigata 956-8603, Japan.

Publication date: March 1, 2008

More about this publication?
  • The Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL publishes refereed papers and reviews in the fields of chemical, biological and toxicological analytical chemistry for the purpose of showcasing the most precise, accurate and sensitive methods for analysis of foods, food additives, supplements and contaminants, cosmetics, drugs, toxins, hazardous substances, pesticides, feeds, fertilizers and the environment available at that point in time. The scope of the Journal includes unpublished original research describing new analytical methods, techniques and applications; improved approaches to sampling, both in the field and the laboratory; better methods of preparing samples for analysis; collaborative studies substantiating the performance of a given method; statistical techniques for evaluating data. The Journal will also publish other articles of general interest to its audience, e.g., technical communications; cautionary notes; comments on techniques, apparatus, and reagents.
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