Evaluation of a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Heteroduplex Assay for Detecting the Adulteration of Processed Orange Juice with Mandarin Juice
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based heteroduplex assay was evaluated for the detection of mandarin juice in processed orange juice. PCR amplification of a fragment of the chloroplast trnT-trnL intergenic spacer derived from mixtures of DNA extracted from orange and mandarin juice resulted in heteroduplex formation. The heteroduplex resulted from the co-amplification of a fragment containing an 8 base-pair indel that distinguished mixtures of orange and mandarin juice from orange juice and mandarin juice alone. The heteroduplex assay was evaluated against authentic juices obtained from different citrus species and confirmed that the marker was homogeneous within Citrus. The data obtained demonstrated maternal inheritance of chloroplast type in Citrus sp. and allowed the identification and confirmation of the maternal parentage of unknown and known citrus hybrids. Analysis of the quantitative potential of the PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis demonstrated good repeatability with a coefficient of variation of 7.5%. Greatest sources of variance in experimental results were attributable to species and varietal differences in the levels of the PCR target. Mandarin juice contained approximately 18% (w/v) less PCR target sequence than did orange juice. The assay was tested in a blind trial using processed juices and correctly identified 20/22 samples with no false-positive results.
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Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Leatherhead Food International Ltd, Leatherhead, Surrey KT22 7RY, United Kingdom.
Publication date: July 1, 2006
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- The Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL publishes refereed papers and reviews in the fields of chemical, biological and toxicological analytical chemistry for the purpose of showcasing the most precise, accurate and sensitive methods for analysis of foods, food additives, supplements and contaminants, cosmetics, drugs, toxins, hazardous substances, pesticides, feeds, fertilizers and the environment available at that point in time. The scope of the Journal includes unpublished original research describing new analytical methods, techniques and applications; improved approaches to sampling, both in the field and the laboratory; better methods of preparing samples for analysis; collaborative studies substantiating the performance of a given method; statistical techniques for evaluating data. The Journal will also publish other articles of general interest to its audience, e.g., technical communications; cautionary notes; comments on techniques, apparatus, and reagents.
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