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In Vitro Effects of Sports and Energy Drinks on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Metabolic Activity

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Purpose: Sports and energy drinks are being increasingly consumed and contain large amounts of sugars, which are known to increase Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of sports and energy drinks on S. mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity.

Methods: S. mutans UA159 was cultured with and without a dilution (1:3 ratio) of a variety of sports and energy drinks in bacterial media for 24 hours. The biofilm was washed, fixed, and stained. Biofilm growth was evaluated by reading absorbance of the crystal violet. Biofilm metabolic activity was measured by the biofilm-reducing XTT to a water-soluble orange compound.

Results: Gatorade Protein Recovery Shake and Starbucks Doubleshot Espresso Energy were found to significantly increase biofilm (30-fold and 22-fold, respectively) and metabolic activity (2-fold and 3-fold, respectively). However, most of the remaining drinks significantly inhibited biofilm growth and metabolic activity.

Conclusions: Several sports and energy drinks, with sugars or sugar substitutes as their main ingredients inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation. Among the drinks evaluated, Gatorade Protein Recovery Chocolate Shake and Starbucks Doubleshot Energy appear to have cariogenic potential since they increased the biofilm formation and metabolic activity of S. mutans.
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Keywords: BIOFILM; ENERGY DRINKS; SPORTS DRINKS; STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Assistant professor and assistant graduate program director, at the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, in the School of Dentistry, at Indiana University, Indianapolis, Ind., USA;, Email: [email protected] 2: Resident, at the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, in the School of Dentistry, at Indiana University, Indianapolis, Ind., USA 3: PhD student, Department of Biomedical and Applied Sciences, in the School of Dentistry, at Indiana University, Indianapolis, Ind., USA 4: Bio-statistician supervisor, Department of Biostatistics, School of Medicine, at Indiana University, Indianapolis, Ind., USA 5: Associate dean for graduate education, a professor of Biomedical and Applied Sciences and Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, an adjunct professor of Preventive and Community Dentistry, and director of the PhD Dental Science Program, in the School of Dentistry, at Indiana University, Indianapolis, Ind., USA

Publication date: 01 September 2017

More about this publication?
  • Acquired after the merger between the American Society of Dentistry for Children and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry in 2002, the Journal of Dentistry for Children (JDC) is an internationally renowned journal whose publishing dates back to 1934. Published three times a year, JDC promotes the practice, education and research specifically related to the specialty of pediatric dentistry. It covers a wide range of topics related to the clinical care of children, from clinical techniques of daily importance to the practitioner, to studies on child behavior and growth and development. JDC also provides information on the physical, psychological and emotional conditions of children as they relate to and affect their dental health.
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