Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

Open Access Analgesic Efficacy of Subcutaneous–Oral Dosage of Tramadol after Surgery in C57BL/6J Mice

Download Article:
(PDF 263.7 kb)
This study investigated the analgesic activity of tramadol in female C57BL/6J mice by using a single subcutaneous injection (25 mg/kg) of tramadol combined with the same dose given in drinking water for 24 h. We then evaluated the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and its active metabolite O-demethyltramadol (M1). To evaluate pain and analgesic efficacy, we performed clinical and behavioral assessment, burrowing tests, and activity analysis and measured body weight, food and water intake in mice that were untreated (control) or underwent analgesia only (T); anesthesia and surgery (AS); or anesthesia, surgery, and analgesia (AS+T). The plasma concentration of tramadol decreased rapidly whereas, for more than 18 h, the M1 level remained stable and above its minimal analgesic concentration for humans. Total food and water intake over 24 h was comparable among all groups. Although T mice consumed tramadol-treated water in sufficient amount and frequency, AS and AS+T animals showed decreased drinking frequency during the first 4 h after surgery. Compared with control and T groups, composite pain scores and burrowing latencies increased significantly in both AS and AS+T mice after surgery, suggesting postsurgical pain. However, AS and AS+T mice did not differ significantly after surgery. In conclusion, although naïve animals ingested a sufficient amount of the drug and plasma levels appeared sufficiently high, mice markedly reduced water intake immediately after surgery. Consequently, even in combination with an initial drug injection, the subsequent voluntary tramadol intake was insufficient to reduce signs of postsurgical pain significantly after laparotomy.

30 References.

No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Discovery Oncology Pharmacology, Roche Innovation Center Basel, Basel, Switzerland 2: Comparative Medicine, Roche Pharma Research and Early Development, Roche Innovation Center Basel, Basel, Switzerland 3: Division of Surgical Research, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland 4: Division of Surgical Research, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland;, Email: [email protected]

Publication date: July 1, 2018

This article was made available online on June 5, 2018 as a Fast Track article with title: "Analgesic Efficacy of Subcutaneous–Oral Dosage of Tramadol after Surgery in C57BL/6J Mice".

More about this publication?
  • The Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (JAALAS) serves as an official communication vehicle for the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS). The journal includes a section of refereed articles and a section of AALAS association news. The mission of the refereed section of the journal is to disseminate high-quality, peer-reviewed information on animal biology, technology, facility operations, management, and compliance as relevant to the AALAS membership. JAALAS accepts research reports (data-based) or scholarly reports (literature-based), with the caveat that all articles, including solicited manuscripts, must include appropriate references and must undergo peer review.

    Attention Members: To access the full text of the articles, be sure you are logged in to the AALAS website.

    Attention: please note, due to a temporary technical problem, reference linking within the content is not available at this time

  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • Information for Advertisers
  • For issues prior to 1997
  • Institutional Subscription Activation
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more