Centering Error for Range Poles
A land surveyor makes accurate measurements using knowledge, physical dexterity, and properly calibrated equipment. All measurements contain errors, but the professional surveyor is mindful of the various sources and consciously works to minimize them based on experience and informed decision making. One such error source is the level vial, a standard component of numerous survey instruments and accessories. This paper derives expected miscentering error from a circular spirit level with an example using a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) range pole as commonly used for real-time kinematic positioning. We demonstrate that when the length of a 2-m, 40':2 mm, GNSS range pole is well known (σr = 1 mm) and the observer has a decent centering ability (σv = 1 mm), the most probable error magnitude for a single observation is 8 mm.
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