Warning Size Affects What Adolescents Recall from Tobacco Advertisements
Objectives: In the United States, print advertisements for smokeless tobacco (SLT) feature a large warning covering 20% of the advertisement space, whereas cigarette and e-cigarette advertisements cover approximately 4%. We explored how warning size affects adolescent boys' recollection of the warning, brand-relevant advertisement features, and product risks. Methods: Overall, 1220 adolescent males (ages 11-16) viewed SLT, cigarette, and e-cigarette advertisements and were asked to recall what they remembered most. Coders identified recalls of the warning label, advertisement features, and risks associated with the product in responses. Results: Participants were less likely to recall warnings in the cigarette versus SLT (OR = 0.30, p < .001) and e-cigarette versus SLT (OR = 0.15, p < .001) ads. Separate GEEs revealed that boys who recalled warnings were less likely to mention brand-relevant advertisement features (OR's < 0.32, ps < .001). Logistic regressions revealed that boys who recalled the warnings were more likely to mention risks associated with the products (ORs > 3.50, ps < .001). Conclusions: Adolescent boys are more likely to recall large SLT warnings than small cigarette and e-cigarette warnings. Warning recall is associated with lower likelihood of recalling brand-relevant advertisement features and greater likelihood of mentioning product risks.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 01 May 2018
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- Tobacco Regulatory Science (Electronic ISSN 2333-9748) is a rigorously peer-reviewed online scientific journal for the dissemination of research relevant to the regulation of tobacco products. The journal content includes a broad array of research domains, including chemistry, biology, behavior, community, and population-level surveillance and epidemiology, as well as knowledge syntheses (eg, meta-analyses or state-of-the-art reviews) and analytic modeling. All articles describe the policy relevance of the research outcomes. Given the global nature of tobacco regulation, particularly as a result of international and national policies, Tobacco Regulatory Science publishes high quality research that is relevant to global regulatory needs and requirements. Tobacco Regulatory Science is published electronically 6 times per year.
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