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Free Content MTBDRplus results correlate with treatment outcome in previously treated tuberculosis patients

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BACKGROUND: Although MTBDRplus is validated for the detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), its role in the assessment of treatment outcome is less clear. We evaluated the association of MTBDRplus results with treatment outcome in new and previously treated patients in an endemic setting in China and determined factors associated with poor treatment outcomes.

METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 298 smear-positive pulmonary TB patients who received the World Health Organization recommended initial treatment regimen or retreatment regimen. MTBDRplus was compared with conventional drug susceptibility testing and DNA sequencing for the detection of MDR-TB. Treatment responses were monitored using sputum smear, culture and chest radiography.

RESULTS: MTBDRplus successfully identified all MDR-TB and had good concordance with sequencing. MDR-TB rates were low among new patients (4/187, 2.1%), but high in previously treated patients (12/28, 42.9%); 65.2% (15/23) of previously treated cases and 17.1% (27/158) of new cases were unsuccessfully treated (P < 0.001). Seven of eight (87.5%) previously treated MDR-TB patients failed the retreatment regimen. In addition to drug resistance, sputum smear positivity at week 8 and cavitation are associated with treatment failure.

CONCLUSION: Not only did MTBDRplus correctly identify all MDR-TB cases, MTBDRplus results are also associated with treatment outcomes in previously treated patients. The retreatment regimen should no longer be used; treatment should be guided by molecular testing.
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Keywords: GenoType® MTBDRplus assay; MDR-TB; previously treated patients; treatment outcome

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: *Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 2: Department of Infectious Diseases, Zhuji People's Hospital, Zhejiang, China 3: Center for TB Research, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore 4: *Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, §Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA 5: *Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

Publication date: 01 March 2015

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  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.

    Certain IJTLD articles are selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. They are available on the Union website

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