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Open Access Morphology, phylogeny, and taxonomy of Microthlaspi (Brassicaceae: Coluteocarpeae) and related genera

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The genus Thlaspi has been variously subdivided since its description by Linnaeus in 1753, but due to similarities in fruit shape several segregates have still not gained broad recognition, despite the fact that they are not directly related to Thlaspi. This applies especially to segregates now considered to belong to the tribe Coluteocarpeae, which includes several well-studied taxa, e.g., Noccaea caerulescens (syn. Thlaspi caerulescens), and the widespread Microthlaspi perfoliatum (syn. Thlaspi perfoliatum). The taxonomy of this tribe is still debated, as a series of detailed monographs on Coluteocarpeae was not published in English and a lack of phylogenetic resolution within this tribe was found in previous studies. The current study presents detailed phylogenetic investigations and a critical review of morphological features, with focus on taxa previously placed in Microthlaspi. Based on one nuclear (ITS) and two chloroplast (matK, trnL-F) loci, four strongly supported major groups were recovered among the Coluteocarpeae genera included, corresponding to Ihsanalshehbazia gen. nov., Friedrichkarlmeyeria gen. nov., Microthlaspi s.str., and Noccaea s.l. In addition, two new species of Microthlaspi, M. sylvarum-cedri sp. nov. and M. mediterraneo-orientale sp. nov., were discovered, which are well supported by both morphological and molecular data. Furthermore, M. erraticum comb. nov. (diploid) and M. perfoliatum s.str. (polyploid) were shown to be distinct species, phylogenetically widely separate, but with some overlap in several morphological characters. Detailed descriptions, notes on taxonomy, geographical distribution, and line drawings for the new species and each species previously included in Microthlaspi are provided. In addition, the current taxonomic state of the tribe Coluteocarpeae is briefly discussed and it is concluded that while several annual taxa are clearly distinct from Noccaea, many perennial taxa, after thorough phylogenetic and morphological investigations, may have to be merged with this genus.

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Keywords: BIOGEOGRAPHY; BRASSICACEAE; CHLOROPLAST CAPTURE; COLUTEOCARPEAE; EVOLUTION; FLOW CYTOMETRY; MICROTHLASPI; MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS; MORPHOLOGY; NOCCAEA; POLYPLOIDY; SYSTEMATICS; TAXONOMY; THLASPI

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Biodiversität und Klima Forschungszentrum (BiK-F), Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany 2: Department of Biology, Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe University, Campus Riedberg, Max-von-Laue-Str. 13, 60439 Frankfurt am Main 3: Biodiversität und Klima Forschungszentrum (BiK-F), Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Integrative Fungal Research Cluster (IPF), Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany 4: Neot Kedumim, P.O. Box 1007, Lod, 71100 Israel 5: Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, University of Postdam, Maulbeerallee 1, 14469 Potsdam, Germany 6: University of Copenhagen, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark 7: Pamukkale University, Science and Arts Faculty, Biology Department, Kinikli, Denizli, 20017, Turkey 8: Biodiversität und Klima Forschungszentrum (BiK-F), Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Institute of Botany 210, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany, Institute of Population Genetics, University of Düsseldorf, Universitätsstr. 1, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany;, Email: [email protected]

Publication date: 08 March 2016

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