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The Effects of Fabrication Strategies on 3D Scaffold Morphology, Porosity, and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Response

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Tissue engineering scaffolds act as a structural template for seeded cells and play a significant role in dictating the performance of the final tissue construct. Scaffold properties are governed by the fabrication method and must be tailored to meet the intended application. In this work, three-dimensional (3D) polyurethane vascular scaffolds were fabricated by a pressure differential solvent casting/particulate leaching (SCPL) and by electrospinning for comparative studies. For SCPL, two different porogens, namely, alginate beads and D-fructose particles were used. A novel scaffold fabricating strategy with a regular geometry of pores and enhanced microporosity was developed by partially solubilising D-fructose porogens in situ using a solvent mixture of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and mercury intrusion porosimetry characterizations combined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging revealed that scaffolds with 80–90% porosity, distinct pore morphology and pore parameters were fabricated using the two porogens, while fibrous scaffolds having an average fiber diameter of ∼200 nm were fabricated by electrospinning. Electrospun scaffolds were included in the study to gain insight on the effect of the fibrous scaffold morphology on cell behavior on the basis of its fibrous nature. Human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC) culture studies indicated that scaffolds fabricated both by SCPL using alginate beads and D-fructose and by electrospinning, all have provided a favorable environment for cell growth.
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Keywords: 3D SCAFFOLDS; ELECTROSPINNING; HUMAN CORONARY ARTERY SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS; MICROPOROSITY; SOLVENT CASTING/PARTICULATE LEACHING

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2013-06-01

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  • Journal of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering (JBT) is an international peer-reviewed journal that covers all aspects of biomaterials, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The journal focuses on the broad spectrum of research topics including all types of biomaterials, their properties, bioimplants and medical devices, biofilms, bioimaging, BioMEMS/NEMS, biosensors, fibers, tissue scaffolds, tissue engineering and modeling, artificial organs, tissue interfaces, interactions between biomaterials, blood, cells, tissues, and organs, regenerative medicine and clinical performance.
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