Distribution of Endocrine-Disrupting Pesticides in Water and Fish from the Oder River, Poland
Abstract:Background. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), which act in a similar way to natural hormones, lead to disorders of the endocrine system in animals and humans (endocrine disruptors). Among food products, fish are considered to be the main source of these compounds in the human diet, posing a health risk to consumers. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations in fish and their environment of certain organochlorine pesticides in fish and their environment and to estimate daily in takes (EDI) of individual pesticides from the fish examined.
Materials and Methods. Analyses aimed at detecting the pesticides (OCPs: α-, β-, γ-HCH, heptachlor, heptachlorepoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, andendrin) included samples of water taken from the lower stretch of the Oder River and three fish species, which are commonly harvested in that area. Quantitative analyses were carried out using the Capillary Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry method in a GC MSD HP 6890/5973 apparatus.
Results. The study found that concentrations of OCPs in fish gonads were significantly higher than in the muscle tissue. The dominant pesticide compound in gonads of roach and bream was γ-HCH, whilst β-HCH predominated in the muscle tissues of those fishes. Endrin, on the other hand was the major pesticide in the muscle tissue of ide. Mean concentrations of OCPs in the gonads ranged from 0.385 to .544 ng · g–1 wet weight (w.w.) for α-HCH, 0.745 to 0.832 ng · g–1 w.w. for γ-HCH, 0.479 to 0.576 ng · g–1 w.w. for dieldrin, and 0.381 to 0.684 ng · g–1 w.w. for endrin. Concentrations of the studied compounds in the water taken from the Oder River followed the order: endrin > γ-HCH > α-HCH > dieldrin > β-HCH > heptachlor≈aldrin > heptachlor epoxide. The highest log BCF was obtained for fish gonads and ranged from 1.5 (endrin) to 3.4 (heptachlor epoxide). Estimated daily intakes (EDI) varied from 0.0014 to 0.097 of the acceptable daily intake (ADI).
Conclusion. This study revealed no direct risk linked to the consumption of fish captured from the study area. However, from the ecological aspect, the accumulation of organochlorine residues in fish gonads has been considered a dangerous phenomenon, as this may result in decreased reproduction of fish and other aquatic organisms, potentially leading to their extinction.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: June 1, 2010
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