Designing a Zero Liquid Discharge Water Treatment Plant in California

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Abstract:

Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR) was selected as the most efficient treatment process for the new 22.7 mega liters per day (ML/d) [6 million gallons per day (MGD)] water treatment plant at Fort Irwin, California. An EDR membrane system with 92 percent water recovery will be constructed and produce water to meet the drinking water objectives. Lime softening, reverse osmosis, mechanical evaporation and solar evaporation were selected to treat the 8 percent EDR concentrate stream thereby establishing a zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system. Treating the brine concentrate will ultimately increase the overall plant recovery to over 99 percent. The plant waste will comprise non hazardous salt crystals that will be disposed to a nearby landfill. This paper presents challenges faced in design the ZLD facility at Fort Irwin.

Keywords: ARSENIC; EDR; EVAPORATION PONDS; FLUORIDE; GROUNDWATER; LIME SOFTENING; MECHANICAL EVAPORATION; RO; SILICA; TDS; ZLD

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2175/193317708X314201

Publication date: April 1, 2008

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  • Water Practice™ publishes peer-reviewed articles and reports focusing on applied water studies. Topics include monitoring, facility operations and maintenance, management, policy, and other issues of interest and concern to water practitioners. The Journal publishes on a monthly to bi-monthly basis and is available online only.
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