Managing Bacteria TMDLs by Overlaying Water Quality, Hydrology and Corrective Measures on Stream Recreation
Kansas faces numerous issues surrounding the attainment of bacteria criteria and recreation use support in Kansas streams. Kansas has employed various approaches, such as load duration curves, use refinement and mandatory wastewater disinfection to appropriately assess and protect recreation. An emerging concept uses the flow components of depth and velocity to create profiles of likely primary recreation (swimming, kayaking) on various sized streams. This technique is applied to a rural creek and a major river to provide a contrast in the likely hydraulic support for in-stream recreation. Overlaying the likelihood of primary recreation on the load duration curve displays actual impairment. A suite of Best Management Practices likely to reduce bacteria levels at varying flow conditions helps craft a strategy for ensuring the most likely recreation uses are protected. At the highest flow conditions, physical limitations may offset the need to invest in bacteria reduction during unlikely recreation periods.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2008-01-01
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