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Formation Kinetics of Gemfibrozil Chlorination Reaction Products: Analysis and Application

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ABSTRACT: 

Aqueous chlorination kinetics of the lipid regulator gemfibrozil and the formation of reaction products were investigated in deionized water over the pH range 3 to 9, and in two wastewater matrices. Chlorine oxidation of gemfibrozil was found to be highly dependent on pH. No statistically significant degradation of gemfibrozil was observed at pH values greater than 7. Gemfibrozil oxidation between pH 4 and 7 was best represented by first order kinetics. At pH 3, formation of three reaction products was observed. 4′-ClGem was the only reaction product formed from pH 4‐7 and was modeled with zero order kinetics. Chlorine oxidation of gemfibrozil in two wastewater matrices followed second order kinetics. 4′-ClGem was only formed in wastewater with pH below 7. Deionized water rate kinetic models were applied to two wastewater effluents with gemfibrozil concentrations reported in literature in order to calculate potential mass loading rates of 4′ClGem to the receiving water.
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Keywords: chlorinated reaction products; chlorine disinfection; gemfibrozil; pharmaceutically active compounds; reaction kinetics; wastewater treatment

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Civil and Resource Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2, Canada

Publication date: 01 July 2014

This article was made available online on 19 December 2013 as a Fast Track article with title: "Formation Kinetics of Gemfibrozil Chlorination Reaction Products: Analysis and Application".

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    Water Environment Research (WER) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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