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Pesticides in the River Ravi and its Tributaries Between its Stretches from Shahdara to Balloki Headworks, Punjab-Pakistan

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Abstract:

ABSTRACT: 

The present study investigated the presence and potent source of pesticides and specific pesticide bearing effluent release points on the River Ravi, between the Shahdara and Balloki Headworks. Pakistan has banned the use of organochlorine and nitrogen containing pesticides, yet no attention has been paid to the continuous monitoring and assessment of these banned pesticides to make sure that they are not being used in practice. Levels of selected organochlorine and nitrogen containing pesticide residues were assessed in water collected from 18 sampling sites on the River Ravi and its tributaries using a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). All water samples were found to be contaminated with varying concentrations of pesticide residues. However, levels of pesticides were below the tolerance limits suggested in national and international standards. Pesticide concentrations in the water of river sites ranged from 0.034 to 0.045μg/L for DDT, 0.033 to 0.046μg/L for DDE, 0.108 to 0.123μg/L for endosulfan and 0.028 to 0.040μg/L for carbofuran. In tributaries, pesticide concentrations ranged from 0.0468 to 0.0685μg/L for DDT, 0.0390 to 0.0637μg/L for DDE, 0.111 to 0.147μg/L for endosulfan and 0.0396 to 0.0631μg/L for carbofuran. The results show pesticide concentrations in river water in the order: endosulfan > DDE > DDT > carbofuran. Pesticide concentrations in tributary waters decreased in the order: endosulfan > DDT> DDE > carbofuran. After Degh Fall and After Hudiara Nulla Fall river sampling sites were severely contaminated while, among the tributaries, Degh Fall and Hudiara Drain were severely contaminated with DDT, DDE, endosulfan and carbofuran. Constant monitoring programs should to be initiated to reform the present situation.

Keywords: GC-ECD; River Ravi; organochlorine; pesticides

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2175/106143013X13807328848612

Affiliations: Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Government College University Faisalabad-Pakistan, Pakistan

Publication date: 2014-01-01

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  • Water Environment Research® (WER®) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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