ABSTRACT: Lime softening is an established type of water treatment used for water softening. The performance of this process is highly dependent on lime dosage. Currently, lime dosage is adjusted manually based on chemical tests, aimed at maintaining the phenolphthalein
(P) and total (M) alkalinities within a certain range (2 P − M ≥ 5). In this paper, a critical study of the softening process has been presented. It has been shown that the current method is frequently incorrect. Furthermore, electrical conductivity (EC) has been introduced as a novel
indicator for effectively characterizing the lime softening process. This novel technique has several advantages over the current alkalinities method. Because no chemical reagents are needed for titration, which is a simple test, there is a considerable reduction in test costs. Additionally,
there is a reduction in the treated water hardness and generated sludge during the lime softening process. Therefore, it is highly eco-friendly, and is a very cost effective alternative technique for efficient control of the lime softening process.
Water Environment Research® (WER®) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year. Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.