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Evaluation of First Flush Phenomenon from Bridge and Parking Lot Sites in the Gyeongan Watershed in Korea

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Urban land-use areas with high imperviousness, such as bridges, highways, and parking lots, are known to be responsible for relatively large amounts of stormwater runoff and high concentration of pollutants particularly in the “first flush”. This study was conducted to determine the effect of first flush from urban land-use sites located in Yongin City, Korea, on runoff amounts and pollutant concentration. It was observed that, on most pollutant parameters, the effect was apparent when the data were analyzed qualitatively but it was relatively weak when analyzed quantitatively. A stronger effect was observed from a bridge site than from a parking lot site. Pollutant loads, washed off at 40 and 60% runoff volume, respectively, were also determined for further analysis of the first flush effect to find an improved strategy for best management practices. In this study, no correlation was observed between rainfall intensity and runoff duration with first flush effect.

Keywords: first flush effect; imperviousness; pollution; stormwater runoff; urban land use; water quality

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: March 1, 2013

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  • Water Environment Research® (WER®) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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