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Biological Application of Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems Microelectrode Array Sensors for Direct Measurement of Phosphate in the Enhanced Biological Phosphorous Removal Process

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The determination of phosphate has been of great importance in the fields of clinical, environmental, and horticultural analysis for over three decades. New cobalt-based micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) microelectrode array (MEA) sensors for direct measurement of phosphate in small environmental samples, such as microbial aggregates, has been introduced and applied here for in situ measurement of phosphate within activated sludge flocs in the enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. The MEMS technologies offer the advantages of accurate fabrication methods, reduced complexity of the fabrication process, mass production, low cost, and increased reliability. Well-defined phosphate profiles across the flocs were observed under anaerobic conditions, during which, phosphate was released from the flocs, using the MEMS MEA sensor. The microprofiles were compared with the microprofiles measured using conventional phosphate microelectrodes. The developed MEMS MEA sensors were useful tools for the in situ measurement of phosphate in small aggregates.

Keywords: array; enhanced biological phosphorus removal process; micro-electro mechanical systems; microelectrode; phosphate; phosphorus removal; sensors

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: August 1, 2009

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  • Water Environment Research® (WER®) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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