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Evaluation of Monitoring Sites for Protection of Groundwater in an Urban Area

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Monitoring for seasonal variation and changes in groundwater is a costly project. Assessing groundwater at selected monitoring sites and for site-specific indicators may reduce the cost of subsequent monitoring.

In this context, the present study developed a method to assess groundwater using a combination of multivariate and univariate statistical techniques to identify critical sites of contamination. The sample data used describes the groundwater quality in Allahabad, India. The factor analysis brings out the observable parameters for groundwater pollution. Finally, univariate techniques such as analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni t-test identify the critical sites of groundwater pollution.

The first factor indicated high loading (>0.6) of total dissolved solids, Cl, Na, Mg, conductivity, SO 4, and hardness. This represented overall pollution status of groundwater from human habitation, waste disposal, and agricultural activities in Allahabad. Iron, Mn, and Zn showed loading on distinct factors and indicated local contamination. Univariate techniques ANOVA and Bonferroni t-test for Zn concentration in handpump samples revealed heavy metal contamination at Hasimpur and Beniganj in India.

Thus, initial monitoring followed by statistical analysis can help identify critical sampling locations and important indicators.
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Keywords: analysis, ANOVA, t-statistics; factor analysis; groundwater quality; multivariate analysis; univariate

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2008-11-01

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  • Water Environment Research (WER) is published monthly, including an annual Literature Review. A subscription to WER includes access to the latest content back to 1992, as well as access to fast track articles. An individual subscription is valid for 12 months from month of purchase.

    Water Environment Research (WER) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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