Pathogen and Indicator Organism Reduction Through Secondary Effluent Filtration: Implications for Reclaimed Water Production
Abstract:The reduction of pathogens and indicator organisms through secondary effluent filtration was investigated at six full-scale treatment facilities, ranging in capacity from 0.04 to 1 m 3/s (1 to 25 mgd). Grab samples were assayed for pathogens (cultivable enteric viruses, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium) and indicator organisms (coliforms, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, and coliphages) quarterly under peak flow conditions from each facility over the course of 1 calendar year. Log 10 removals resulting from filtration averaged 0.3 to 0.8 log 10 for cultivable enteric viruses, 0.4 to 1.5 log 10 for protozoan parasites, 0.01 to 3.7 log 10 for indicator bacteria, and 0.3 to 1.1 log 10 for coliphages. In addition to filter design (cloth, monomedium shallow- or deep-bed, or dual-media filters), differences in reduction of pathogens and indicators could be attributed to the combined effects of hydraulic loading rates, chemical addition practices, backwashing and postbackwashing operating strategies, and the effectiveness of upstream biological treatment and sedimentation.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: July 1, 2008
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