Petroleum Refinery Secondary Effluent Polishing Using Freezing Processes—Toxicity and Organic Contaminant Removal
A petroleum refinery secondary effluent was treated using two freezing techniques—spray freezing and unidirectional downward freezing (UDF). The freezing processes were effective to remove toxicity and total organic carbon (TOC)- and chemical oxygen demand (COD)-causing materials in the effluent. Agitation of the liquid during UDF significantly improved the impurity separation efficiency; 85 to 96% removal of TOC and COD was achieved without any pretreatment and freezing only 70% of the feed water. The treatment efficiency of the spray freezing was at the same level as that of UDF without mixing. The spray ice with longer storage time released more contaminants with early meltwater. The initial contaminant concentration of the feed water and the freezing temperatures (−10°C and −25°C) had no significant influence on the treatment efficiency. A small fluctuation in effluent TOC concentration caused a dramatic change in effluent toxicity (Microtox). The effective concentration (EC 20) (Microtox) was effective in detecting effluent toxicity.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2008-06-01
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Water Environment Research (WER) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year. Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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