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Enhanced Removal of Lead(II) and Cadmium(II) from Water in Alum Coagulation by Ferrate(VI) Pretreatment

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A laboratory study demonstrated that ferrate pretreatment significantly enhanced lead and cadmium removal in alum coagulation, under the conditions of natural surface water. The enhancement of lead removal was approximately 21 to 37% by ferrate pretreatment at a dosage of 1 to 5 mg/L. The enhanced removal of cadmium by ferrate pretreatment at a dosage of 1 to 5 mg/L exceeded the removal by alum coagulation alone 2- to 12-fold. Cadmium is much more difficult to remove than lead in alum coagulation. The performance of ferrate in enhancing the removal of lead and cadmium in alum coagulation was better than that of ferric chloride. The removal of lead and cadmium was highly pH-dependent, following the general trend of higher pH being related to higher removal. Satisfactory removal of cadmium could be expected by ferrate pretreatment combined with adjusting the pH of the water.

Keywords: alum; cadmium; coagulation; ferrate; lead; pH; pretreatment

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: November 1, 2007

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  • Water Environment Research® (WER®) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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